Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Research Articles

Boscarino JA, Adams RE, Figley CR. (2005). A prospective cohort study of the effectiveness of employer-sponsored crisis interventions after a major disaster. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health;7:9-22.

Boscarino JA, Adams RE, Foa EB,  Landrigan PJ. (2006). A propensity score analysis of brief worksite crisis interventions after the World Trade Center disaster: implications for intervention and research. Medical Care; 44(5):454-62.

Boscarino JA, & Adams RE (2008). Overview of Findings from the World Trade Center Disaster Outcome Study: Recommendations for future research after exposure to psychological trauma. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 10, (4) 275-290.

Boscarino, J., Adams, R., & Figley, C. (2011). Mental Health Service Use After the World Trade Center Disaster: Utilization Trends and Comparative Effectiveness. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199, 91-99.

DeFraia GS. EAP-based critical incident stress management: utilization of a practice-based assessment of incident severity level in responding to workplace trauma.  International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 2013;15(2):105-22.

Flannery, R.B., Jr. (2001). Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP): Ten years of empirical support for Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM). International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 3, 5-10.

Flannery, R.B., Jr., Farley, E., Rego, S., & Walker, A. (2007). Characteristics of staff victims of psychiatric assaults: 15 year analysis of the Assaulted Staff action Program (ASAP). Psychiatric Quarterly, 78, (1) 25-37.

Optum White Paper. Responding to traumatic events that affect the workplace.

Paul, R. & Thompson, C. Employee Assistance Program Responses to Large Scale Traumatic Events - Lessons Learned and Future Opportunities.  Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health. Volume 21, Issue 3-4, 2006.

Richards, D. (2001). A field study of CISD versus CISM. Journal of Mental Health, 10: 351-362.


Adler, A., Bliese, PD, McGurk, D., Hoge, CW, & Castro, CA. (2009). Battlemind debriefing and battlemind training as early interventions with soldiers returning from Iraq: Randomization by platoon. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 928-940.

Adler, A, Litz, BT, Castro, CA, Suvak, M., Thomas, JL, Burrell, L, et al. (2008). Group randomized trial of critical incident stress debriefing provided to US peacekeepers. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21, 253-263.

Deahl, M., Srinivasan, M., Jones, N., Thomas, J., Neblett, C., & Jolly, A. (2000). Preventing psychological trauma in soldiers. The role of operational stress training and psychological debriefing. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 73, 77-85.


Hawker, DM, Durkin, J,  & Hawker, DSJ (2010). To debrief or not to debrief our heroes: That is the question. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Published online in Wiley Online Library ( DOI: 10.1002/cpp.730

Regel, S. (2007). Post-trauma support in the workplace: the current status and practice of critical incident stress management (CISM) and psychological debriefing (PD) within organizations in the UK. Occupational Medicine, 57: 411-416.

Regel, S (2010) Does Psychological Debriefing work? Healthcare Counselling and Psychotherapy Journal. April, Vol.10, No 2, pp.14-18.

Tuckey MR. (2007). Issues in the debriefing debate for the emergency services. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice; 14:106-16.